Reading Thinking Anchor Charts Reading/Thinking Anchor Charts

Grade 4

Grade 4 Reading Standards and Component Skills

 
StandardSkillStandardSkill
RL.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.RI.4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
RL.4.2: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.RI.4.2: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
RL.4.3: Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).RI.4.3: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
RL.4.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).RI.4.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
RL.4.5: Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.RI.4.5: Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RL.4.6: Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.RI.4.6: Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
RL.4.7: Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.RI.4.7: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
RI.4.8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
RL.4.9: Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.RI.4.9: Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Click the button to download a PDF of a summary table listing the reading standard, its component skills, and the reading lessons where the skills are taught.

RL.4.1

STANDARD

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

SKILL

Explain Text and Draw Inferences

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.1: EXPLAIN TEXT AND DRAW INFERENCES
Step 1What do you want to figure out?
Step 2

Look for clues in the text.



  • nearby details

  • feeling words

  • tone of voice

  • pictures

Step 3

Think about what you already know.



  • Visualize.

Step 4

Put the clues from the text and your knowledge together.


 


Think: What does the text mean?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ explains what the text means


▢ draws an inference to figure out what the text means


▢ includes text details that show the inference is true


▢ includes background knowledge that show the inference is true

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot connect details to draw an inference…

  • What is happening in this part of the text?

  • What would these words or thoughts sound like if the character spoke them aloud?

  • Make a movie in your mind that includes these details. What do the details teach you?

use only background knowledge…

  • What details in the text also show your idea?

  • What happens in the text that is similar to your experience?

RL.4.1

STANDARD

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

SKILL

Evaluate Text Details and Evidence

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.1: EVALUATE TEXT DETAILS AND EVIDENCE
Step 1Find details to prove your inference.
Step 2

Choose the strongest details. Find evidence that:



  • proves the inference.

  • repeats in the text.

  • provides specifics.

Step 3

If the details do not prove the inference,



  • find new evidence or

  • change your inference.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ lists evidence that proves the inference


▢ includes accurate evidence from the text


▢ chooses strong evidence (related, frequent, specific)

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
struggle to choose the strongest evidence…

  • How does this detail relate to your inference? Does it change your inference?

  • Where else in the text does this detail or one like it appear? How many examples can you find?

  • Is this detail specific? Does it tell something exactly?

include unimportant or irrelevant details…How does this detail show your inference is true? What would happen to your inference without this detail? If nothing would change, then your detail is probably NOT important.

RI.4.1

STANDARD

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

SKILL

Explain Text and Draw Inferences

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.1: EXPLAIN TEXT AND DRAW INFERENCES
Step 1What do you want to figure out?
Step 2

Look for clues in the text.



  • nearby details

  • text features

  • visuals

Step 3

Think about what you already know about the topic.



  • Visualize.

  • What makes sense?

Step 4Put the clues from the text and your knowledge together. Explain what the text means.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ correctly explains what the text means


▢ draws an inference to figure out what the text means


▢ includes details from text and visuals that show the inference is true


▢ includes background knowledge that show the inference is true

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot connect details to draw an inference…

  • What is happening in this part of the text? What would make sense or explain the events or ideas?

  • What would these words sound like if the author spoke them aloud?

  • Make a movie in your mind that includes these details. What do the details teach you?

use only background knowledge…

  • What details in the text also show your idea?

  • What happens in the text that is similar to your experience?

RI.4.1

STANDARD

Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

SKILL

Evaluate Text Details and Evidence

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.1: EVALUATE TEXT DETAILS AND EVIDENCE
Step 1Find details to support your inference.
Step 2

Choose the strongest details. Find evidence that:



  • proves the inference.

  • repeats in the text.

  • is specific (includes quantities, dates, description).

  • is called important by author.

Step 3

If the details do not prove the inference,



  • find new details or

  • change your inference.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ lists evidence that proves the inference


▢ includes accurate evidence from the text


▢ chooses strong evidence (related, frequent, specific, important)

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
struggle to choose the strongest evidence…

  • How does this detail relate to your inference? Does it change your inference?

  • Where else in the text does this detail or one like it appear? How many examples can you find?

  • Is this detail specific? Does it tell exactly when, how much, or what something is like?

  • Where does the author use this detail? How often? Do you think this detail is important to the author?

include unimportant or irrelevant details…
How does this detail show your inference is true? What would happen to your inference without this detail? If nothing would change, then your detail is probably NOT important.

RL.4.2

STANDARD

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

SKILL

Determine a Theme in a Story or Drama

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.2: DETERMINE A THEME IN A STORY OR DRAMA
Step 1

Find important topics.



  • patterns of events

  • repeating problems or situations

  • repeating feelings

Step 2

What is the author showing about this topic?



  • What does the main character learn?

  • What does the reader learn?

Step 3What is the author’s message about life beyond the text? (THEME)

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ names the main topic


▢ identifies the author’s message about the world (theme)


▢ explains how each detail supports that message

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
struggle to separate a universally applicable theme from specific story events…

  • What does the character learn about the world in this situation or story? How could you use this lesson in your life?

  • How do you think the author wants you to act in your life? What should you do, or not do?

cannot find patterns of events or repeating ideas and situations…

  • What kind of situation does [character] find [himself/herself) in over and over?

  • What happens to [character] over and over again?

do not express theme as a complete sentence/idea…What is an idea or topic that repeats in the text? What does the author say about it? Tell me in a complete sentence

RL.4.2

STANDARD

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

SKILL

Determine Theme in a Poem

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.2: DETERMINE THEME IN A POEM
Step 1Put the poem into your own words.
Step 2

What is an important idea or topic in the poem? Study:



  • title.

  • figurative language.

  • end of the poem.

Step 3

What is the author saying about this idea or topic?



  • What does the poem make you think or feel?

  • What is the poem’s message about life beyond the text? (THEME)

Step 2Reread the poem, thinking about the theme.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ restates the poem correctly in own words


▢ names an important idea or topic


▢ identifies the author’s message about the world (theme)


▢ explains how each detail supports that message

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
read the poem’s words literally…

  • Could this happen in real life? What else might these words mean?

  • What do these words help you imagine?

struggle to determine a universally applicable theme from many details in a poem…

  • What words, ideas, or images do you see in the poem more than once?

  • What would the speaker’s voice sound like reading these words aloud?

  • What is the speaker saying about the world? How could you use this lesson in your life?

RL.4.2

STANDARD

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

SKILL

Summarize a Text

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.2: SUMMARIZE A TEXT
Step 1Name the text and text type.
Step 2

Name the key story elements.



  • characters and setting

  • problem and solution

Step 3

Summarize important events and details. Try this order.



  • someone (who?)

  • wanted/didn’t want (what?)

  • but (problem)

  • so (character tried to solve problem)

  • then (ending)

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ names the important characters and settings


▢ tells the main problem and solution


▢ includes only important details


▢ organizes the summary logically

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
include too many story elements or details…

  • Do these details fit into the Someone Wanted But So Then frame?

  • Can I understand the problem and solution if you leave out this detail?

cannot express the story problem into the language of “wanted”…Remember, that sometimes the main character wants something to happen. Sometimes the character wants something NOT to happen.
summarize in a confusing order…

  • When did this part happen? Why?

  • Tell me the main problem. Then tell me how the main character tries to solve it.

RI.4.2

STANDARD

Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

SKILL

Determine Main Idea and Key Supporting Details

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.2: DETERMINE MAIN IDEA AND KEY SUPPORTING DETAILS
Step 1What is the topic?
Step 2

What does the author want to teach us (MAIN IDEA)? Scan:



  • headings.

  • introductions.

  • conclusion.

  • visuals and text features.

Step 3

Find details to support the main idea.



  • facts or events

  • examples or anecdotes

  • explanations

  • quotes or visuals

Step 4Ask yourself if the detail is important or just interesting.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies the main idea and topic


▢ gives accurate text details that support the idea


▢ chooses important details

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
confuse main idea with topic…

  • Share examples: Topic—what the text is about, such as cats; Main Idea—what the text says, such as “cats are good pets.”

  • What is this text about? Tell me the topic in one or two words.

  • What does the author say about this topic? Tell me in a complete sentence.

choose unimportant, inaccurate, or irrelevant details…

  • Which details are most important?

  • Where did you find this text detail? Does the text say this exactly?

  • How does this detail support the main idea? Can you say the connection another way?

RI.4.2

STANDARD

Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

SKILL

Summarize a Text

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.2: SUMMARIZE A TEXT
Step 1Name the text and text type.
Step 2What is the author is teaching us about the topic? (MAIN IDEA)
Step 3

Look for key details in:



  • headings.

  • topic sentences.

  • visuals and text features.

Step 4

Explain the main idea using key  details in an order that makes sense.



  • Sequential

  • Compare/contrast

  • Cause/effect

Step 5

Don’t include:



  • minor details.

  • your opinion.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ states the main idea of the text.


▢ explains the main idea with details from the text.


▢ includes only important details.


▢ organizes the details in a way that makes sense with the text.


▢ identifies author, text, and text type.

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot identify the main idea…What is the author trying to teach us? What would be a good title for this section?
includes too many details…Which details are most important?
cannot organize the details logically…

  • Are these details steps?

  • Do the details tell about events that happened first, second, or last?

  • Do the details tell about a person’s life and what happened in it?

  • Do the details tell what something is like? Do they give examples of something?  

RL.4.3

STANDARD

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

SKILL

Describe a Character Using Specific Details

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.3: DESCRIBE A CHARACTER USING SPECIFIC DETAILS
Step 1

Find the character’s IDENTITY.



  • name, age, gender, role

  • setting

  • appearance

  • important relationships

Step 2

Find the character’s ACTIONS.



  • What actions repeat?

  • What do actions show about his or her traits?

Step 3

Find the character’s FEELINGS.



  • What kinds of feelings repeat?

  • What motivates the character?

Step 4

Describe the character.



  • identity & relationships

  • actions & traits

  • feelings & motivations

  • importance to the story

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ gives details about the character’s identity, such as age, job, or appearance


▢ gives details that repeat and show the character’s usual actions or feelings


▢ tells why the character is important to the story


▢ lists accurate details from the text to support description

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
confuse permanent traits with temporary emotions or actions…

  • When else does the character feel, do, or say something like this? How do you think the character feels and acts most of the time?

  • Were you surprised when the character did or said this?

cannot identify character motivations and feelings…How do you feel when you act this way? What do you want to happen, or not to happen?

RL.4.3

STANDARD

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

SKILL

Describe Setting Using Specific Details

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.3: DESCRIBE SETTING USING SPECIFIC DETAILS
Step 1

Find WHERE the story is set.



  • place names

  • descriptions of nature and buildings

Step 2

Find WHEN it happens.



  • dates or time words

  • day or night?

  • time period clues (clothes, technology, language)

Step 3

Find how characters FEEL about the setting.



  • sensory words

  • descriptions

  • feelings and thoughts

  • problems or opportunities from the setting

Step 4

Describe the setting.



  • where

  • when

  • characters’ feelings about it

  • importance to the story

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ gives details that shows the place and time of the setting


▢ gives details that show how character feels about the setting


▢ tells how the setting is important to the main story problem


▢ lists accurate details from the text to support description

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot tell why the setting is important to the story…

  • What happens in this setting? What do characters do or say in the setting?

  • What problems does the setting create for characters?

  • How does the setting help characters solve the main problem?

cannot use details to determine when and where…

  • Look at the pictures for clues.

    • What are people wearing?

    • What is outside the windows?

    • What kind of buildings, plants, or animals do you see?



  • Look at the words for clues.

    • What describing words tell the time of day or season?

    • What words tell how people are dressed?

    • What words show if people live in a place like you do or one that is different?



RL.4.3

STANDARD

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

SKILL

Describe Events Using Specific Details

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.3: DESCRIBE EVENTS USING SPECIFIC DETAILS
Step 1Describe the setting of an event.
Step 2Describe what characters say and do.
Step 3

Describe why the event matters.



  • What happens because of the event?

  • What does it change in the story?

  • How does it relate to the main problem?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ gives details that shows the setting of the event


▢ gives details that shows what characters do/say during the event and what happens because of it


▢ tells how the event is important to the main story problem


▢ lists accurate details from the text to support description

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot tell why the event is important to the story…

  • What happens after this event? Would it have happened without this event?

  • Does this event cause any problems for the main character?

  • How does this event help [the main character] solve [his or her] problem?

  • What sequence or cause/effect words do you see near this event? What do they tell you?

cannot create a description from story details…Who is part of the event? What do they do? What do they say?

RI.4.3

STANDARD

Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

SKILL

Explain Events, Procedures, or Ideas

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART 
RI.4.3: EXPLAIN EVENTS, PROCEDURES OR IDEAS
Step 1

What does the text describe?



  • EVENTS in history or science

  • IDEAS from science or history

  • STEPS in a procedure or scientific process

Step 2

Events


What are the events in order?



  • who

  • did what

  • when and where

Ideas


What is the topic of the idea?

Steps


What does the process or procedure create or make happen?

Step 3

Events


What are the causes and effects of the event?


 


Look for key words.



  • because

  • causes

  • as a result

  • therefore

Ideas


What are the details of the idea?


 


Describe:



  • causes and effects.

  • problems and solutions.

  • explanations. 

Steps


Explain how each step works.


 



  • 1st

  • 2nd

  • 3rd

Step 4Why are these events, ideas, or steps important?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ tells if the text describes events, ideas, or steps


▢ tells events in order/the topic of ideas/the process that the steps explain


▢ tells what causes the event and what the event causes


▢ tells the important details about the idea


▢ explains how each step works and in what order

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
Cannot explain the events, ideas, or steps…

  • Events/Ideas/Steps: Try to answer the questions in Reading Thinking Step 2.

  • Events: What cause and effect words can you find? What do they suggest about how events are connected?

  • Ideas: What else can you tell me about this idea?

  • Steps: Tell me how to use the steps. What can I do if I follow them correctly?

cannot determine whether to look for events, ideas, or steps…

  • What does the text describe? Does this detail tell:

    • something that happened?

    • an idea?

    • how to do something or how something works?



RL.4.4

STANDARD

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

SKILL

Define Words and Phrases as Used in a Text

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.4: DEFINE WORDS AND PHRASES AS USED IN A TEXT
Step 1

Look inside the word for parts you know.



  • prefixes and suffixes

  • word roots

Step 2

What kind of work does the word do?



  • describes (adjective/adverb)

  • shows an action (verb)

  • names person, place, object, event, idea (noun)

Step 3Look outside the word for context clues.
Step 4Put all the clues together to guess the definition.
Step 5Check your idea in the original sentence.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ tells what the word or phrase means in the text


▢ gives clues from inside and outside the word to support the definition

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
Do not recognize affixes or word parts…Share a classroom list of common affixes and roots. Do you see any parts of your word on our class list? What do these parts mean?
Cannot determine which context clues are important or useful…What other words in the text mean something similar to your word? Something different? These are good words and sentences to read for clues to the meaning of your word.

RL.4.4

STANDARD

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

SKILL

Define Words Related to Characters from Mythology

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.4: DEFINE WORDS RELATED TO CHARACTERS FROM MYTHOLOGY
Step 1Look inside the word for parts related to mythological names.
Step 2Think what you know about that character from mythology.
Step 3

What kind of work does the word do?



  • describes (adjective/adverb)

  • shows an action (verb)

  • names a person, place, object, event, idea (noun)

Step 4Look near the word for context clues.
Step 5Put all the clues together to guess the definition.
Step 6Check your idea in the original sentence.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ tells what the word or phrase means in the text


▢ finds clues from characters in myths


▢ gives clue from inside and outside the word to support the definition

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
do not recognize that a word has mythological roots OR do not know the myth…

  • Identify the root that comes from a myth. What do you know about this myth or the characters in it?

  • What names do you see from myths? What names describe heroes? What names describe actions real people cannot do?

  • Remember, you can always look up a word in the dictionary if don’t know the meaning.

cannot use the clues from mythology to define the word…What general qualities do the myth characters have? What does this teach you about your story’s characters or setting?

RI.4.4

STANDARD

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

SKILL

Define Academic and Domain-Specific Words and Phrases in a Grade 4 Text

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.4: DEFINE ACADEMIC AND DOMAIN-SPECIFIC WORDS AND PHRASES IN A GRADE 4 TEXT
Step 1Look inside the word for parts you know.
Step 2

What kind of work does the word do?



  • describes (adjective/adverb)

  • shows an action (verb)

  • names a person, place, object, event, idea (noun)

Step 3

Look near the word for context clues.



  • text features

  • visuals

Step 4Put all the clues together to guess at a definition.
Step 5Check your idea in the original sentence.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ tells what the word or phrase means in the text


▢ gives clues from inside and outside the word to support the definition

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
do not recognize affixes or word parts…Share a classroom list of common affixes and roots. Do you see any parts of your word on our class list? What do these parts mean?
cannot determine which context clues are important or useful…

  • Word clues: What does your word do in the text? Does it name something in a picture? Does it show an action? Does it describe something? How does it make you feel?

  • Outside clues: What other words in the text mean something similar to your word? Something different? These are good words and sentences to read for clues to the meaning of your word.

RL.4.5

STANDARD

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

SKILL

Refer to Structural Elements of a Text

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.5: REFER TO STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF A TEXT
Step 1

Look at the parts to decide if the text is a:



  • poem.

  • story.

  • play.

STEP 2What is the text mostly about?
Step 3

Describe how the text parts help you enjoy and understand the text.



  • POEMS describe lines, stanzas, rhythm, wordplay.

  • STORIES describe characters, problems, solutions, events.

  • PLAYS describe  scenes, dialogue, stage directions.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies if the text is a poem, story, or play


▢ tells how different parts of the text made it easier to understand


▢ tells how different parts of the text made it more fun to read


▢ correctly names the parts of the text discussed

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot identify the structural parts of a text…

  • Point to different parts of the text:What is this part called?

    • What other parts of the text are like this one?

    • How does this part of the text help us understand or enjoy the reading? 



incorrectly identifies text type…What parts does each kind of text have? Use the list in Reading Thinking Step 3 to help you.

RL.4.5

STANDARD

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

SKILL

Explain Differences in Narrative Forms

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.5: EXPLAIN DIFFERENCES IN NARRATIVE FORMS
Step 1

What type of text is it?



  • POEMS have stanzas, lines, rhythm, wordplay.

  • STORIES have characters, problems, solutions, descriptions.

  • PLAYS have scenes, dialogue, stage directions.

Step 2How are these features important in the text?
Step 3How would the text change if it were a different type?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies if the text is a poem, story, or play


▢ correctly names the parts that go with this text type

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
incorrectly identifies text type…What parts does each kind of text have? Use the list in Reading Thinking Step 1 to help you.
cannot recognize or name the features of the text type…Point to part of the text. Where else have you seen text like this? What kind of text was it in?

RI.4.5

STANDARD

Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

SKILL

Describe Overall Structure

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
RI.4.5 DESCRIBE OVERALL STRUCTURE
Text Structure TypesStep 1: Look for signal words.Step 2: Look at text elements.Step 3: Decide what questions the text answers.Step 4: Put clues together to determine text structure.
Chronologicalfirst, next, then, dates, when, before, finally

timelines, sequence charts, pictures in time order


 


chapters and headings ordered by time


When did something happen? What happened in order?Think: What is the overall purpose of the text?
Process/Sequencefirst, second, before, after, following, at the same timediagrams, flow charts, numbered stepsHow does something work? What steps do you follow to do something?
Causes & Effectsbecause, result, since, consequently, reason, this led to, due to

cause and effect charts, flow charts, quantitative charts and graphs


 


Chapters and headings may be different causes or results.

What caused something? What was the result?
Problem/Solutionproblem, dilemma, solution, because, result, answer, discovery

problem/ solution diagram


 


Sections may be organized by questions or aspects of a problem.

What is the problem? How was it solved? What is the solution?
Compare & Contraston the one hand, other hand, comparatively, however, both, neither, as opposed toVenn diagrams, before/after charts, alternate sections that show different topicsHow are two topics similar? How are they different?
Descriptioncharacteristics, for example, includesdefinitions, text boxes, short entries on a wide range of subtopicsWhat are important aspects of this topic?
What are characteristics of this topic?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ analyzes signal words for clues to text structure


▢ analyzes text elements for clues to text structure


▢ analyzes what questions the passage answers (central purpose)


▢ determines text structure

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
focus on a signal word (such as a date) rather than the main question the text answers…

  • Use prompts from step 3. If the key word is a time/date word, ask “is the text organized sequentially in time? Is its main purpose to tell us when things happened in order

  • If the key word is a causal word (because, as a result), ask “Is the entire text organized by causes and effects? Is every section describing causes and effects or are those just key details?”

cannot differentiate text structure from content….Annotate each paragraph or section with the main purpose of that section in two-three words (e.g. “What happened when” “What X does.” . Look back over your list. What questions are these sections answering? When things happened? What caused something? What are the problems people have tried to solve? etc.

RL.4.6

STANDARD

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

SKILL

Compare and Contrast Points of View

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.6: COMPARE AND CONTRAST POINTS OF VIEW
Step 1

What do you know about each narrator?



  • first, second, or third-person?

  • role in the story?

Step 2

STUDY clues to each narrator’s point of view.



  • feeling words

  • descriptive, figurative, evaluative language

  • emphasis or omission of information

  • evidence of bias

Step 2

Compare and contrast the narrators’ points of view.



  • How are they the same?

  • How do they differ?

  • Do they contradict in any way?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ describes what is true about BOTH narrator’s points of view


▢ describes what is true for ONLY ONE of the narrator’s points of view


▢ describes any ways that the two points of view disagree


▢ includes accurate details about the narrators and their points of view to support the comparisons

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
struggle to identify points of view…

  • Choose questions that fit the specific text:

    • What feeling words can you find?

    • What describing language can you find?

    • Where does the narrator use figurative language to help you imagine something?

    • Where does the narrator use words to share an opinion, such as better?

    • What does the narrator think is important? What does the narrator leave out?

    • Does the narrator seem biased or unfair in any way? Do you think the descriptions are complete and fair to everyone?



struggle to recognize contradictions…

  • Sometimes two people say something different about the same topic, for example “I like cats” and “I like dogs.” Sometimes they disagree about something specific related to the topic, for example “I like cats” and “I hate cats.” Look for both kinds of details.

  • What words with opposite meaning do you see? Who says them? What about?

RI.4.6

STANDARD

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

SKILL

Compare and Contrast Accounts of the Same Event or Topic

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.6: COMPARE AND CONTRAST ACCOUNTS OF THE SAME EVENT OR TOPIC
Step 1

Who are the authors?



  • What are their perspectives?

  • Is either writing first-hand?

Step 2

Study the CONTENT of each account.



  • similarities

  • differences

  • contradictions

  • amount of detail

Step 3

Study the PRESENTATION of each account.



  • language

  • emphasis

  • kind of evidence   

Step 4

Compare and contrast the two accounts. Include:



  • PERSPECTIVE.

  • CONTENT.

  • PRESENTATION.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ describes what is true about BOTH accounts


▢ describes what is true for ONLY ONE account


▢ describes any ways that the two accounts disagree


▢ includes accurate details from both texts about author’s perspective, content, and presentation to support the comparisons

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
include only content, only perspective, or only presentation…

Refer them to the Reading Thinking Step for the aspect(s) they omitted. Don’t forget this part of the process. Use the bullets as clues to help you find the details you need.

struggle to recognize differences in presentation…

  • How much does this account tell about [topic/person/event]? How much does the other account tell about that [topic/person/event]?

  • What kinds of words does this account have about [topic/person/event]? What kinds of words does the other have about the same [topic/person/event]

  • What details does this account give about [topic/person/event]? What details does the other account give about the same [topic/person/event]?

  • What do you know about the author that might explain the differences?

RL.4.7

STANDARD

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

SKILL

Make Connections Between Text and Visual or Oral Presentations

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RL.4.7: MAKE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT AND VISUAL OR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Step 1

Find text details about characters, setting, and events in:



  • dialogue.

  • narrative description.

  • stage directions.

Step 2

Study CHARACTERS in the performance/illustration.



  • What do they look like?

  • How do they move?

  • What is their tone of voice?

Step 3

Study SETTING in the performance/illustration.



  • When and where is it?

  • What are details within the setting?

Step 4

Study EVENTS in the performance/illustration.



  • sequence

  • emphasis

  • actions and dialogue

Step 5

Match details in the text with those in the performance/illustration. Include:



  • characters. 

  • setting.

  • events.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ names ways that the characters, settings, and events match in both versions


▢ uses accurate details from both versions to support connections


▢ describes how the performance or illustration uses specific directions and descriptions from the written text

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot match details from written text and performance/illustration…

  • What words in the written text go with this illustration?

  • What part of the written text does this scene in the performance show?

cannot describe characters, setting, or events in the two versions…Use the questions and prompts in Reading Thinking Steps 2, 3, or 4. Try to answer them for the performance or illustration.
cannot find details in illustrations…Where is this illustration on the page? How big is it? What colors are most important in it? What characters or objects are largest? What might this character sound like if you heard the words aloud?

RI.4.7

STANDARD

Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

SKILL

Interpret and Explain Quantitative Information

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.7: INTERPRET AND EXPLAIN QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION
Step 1

What kind of element is it?



  • timeline

  • bar or line graph

  • flow chart

  • pie chart

  • diagram

Step 2

What is the topic of the element? Notice:



  • title.

  • nearby text.

Step 3

Study any labels to decide what each part teaches about.



  • headings for rows, columns, or parts

  • keys or captions

  • step numbers

Step 4

What is each number describing?



  • Match numbers to the labels.

Step 5

Put the clues together to interpret the element.



  • What does it mean?

  • What does it teach you?

  • Why is it here?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies the type of text element


▢ explains what the number information means and explains about the topic


▢ explains why the number information is included in the text


▢ uses accurate details from the text element to support explanations

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot read the quantitative text element…

  • Look again at Reading Thinking Step 1. Knowing the kind of text element will help you remember how to read it.

  • What do you know about how to read [a timeline, diagram, pie chart, etc.]

  • What is the title of this [a timeline, diagram, pie chart, etc.]?

  • What does this [label, step number, caption, etc] say? What numbers is it about?

cannot explain the importance of the quantitative text…

  • What would the text be like without this information?

  • What words in the main part of the text does this text element explain or give details about?

RI.4.7

STANDARD

Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

SKILL

Interpret and Explain Visual Information

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.7: INTERPRET AND EXPLAIN VISUAL INFORMATION
Step 1

What kind of visual is it?



  • illustration

  • photograph

  • diagram

Step 2

What is the topic of the visual? Notice:



  • title.

  • labels or captions.

  • nearby text.

Step 3

Study the visual closely to interpret it.



  • What details does it add to the text?

  • What does it help you understand?

  • Why did the author include it?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies the type of visual


▢ explains what the visual information means and explains about the topic


▢ explains why the visual information is included in the text


▢ uses accurate details from the visual to support explanations

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot read the visual…

  • Look again at Reading Thinking Step 1. Knowing the kind of visual will help you remember how to read it.

  • What do you know about how to read [an illustration, photograph, diagram, etc.]?

  • What is the title of this [illustration, photograph, diagram, etc.]?

  • What does this [title, label, caption, nearby text] say? What is the visual about?

cannot explain the importance of the visual…

  • What would the text be like without this visual?

  • What words in the main part of the text does this visual explain or give details about?

RI.4.7

STANDARD

Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

SKILL

Interpret and Explain Oral Information

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.7: INTERPRET AND EXPLAIN ORAL INFORMATION
Step 1

What is the topic? Notice:



  • title and headings.

  • introduction.

Step 2

Listen closely to oral elements.



  • sound effects and music

  • speech tone, volume, and speed

  • pauses or emphasis

Step 3

Interpret the importance of oral elements.



  • What information do they add to the text?

  • What do they help you understand?

  • Why did the author include them?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies the topic


▢ explains what the oral content adds to the text and what it helps readers understand


▢ explains why the oral content is included in the text


▢ uses accurate details from the oral content to support explanations

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
cannot understand the oral information…

  • Look again at Reading Thinking Step 1. Knowing the topic will help you think about the oral content.

  • What should you listen for in oral content? Which might be especially important for listening to something about [topic]?

  • What is the oral content about?

cannot explain the importance of the oral content…

  • What would the text be like without this oral content?

  • What words in the main part of the text does the oral content explain or give details about?

RI.4.8

STANDARD

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

SKILL

Explain How Authors Use Reasons and Evidence to Support Particular Points

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.8: EXPLAIN HOW AUTHORS USE REASONS AND EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT PARTICULAR POINTS
Step 1What is the main idea?
Step 2

What important points does the author make? Look in:



  • headings.

  • topic sentences.

  • conclusions.

Step 3

How does the author support the important points? Look for:



  • number facts (dates, statistics, quantities).

  • examples, anecdotes, or quotes.

  • photographs or visuals.

  • explanations, comparisons, or reasons.

Step 4How does the support for a point help you understand it better?

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ identifies the main idea of the text


▢ identifies the author’s important points


▢ identifies accurate details that support the author’s important points


▢ explains how details of different types support the author’s points

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
does not connect reasons and evidence to the correct particular point…What important point are you trying to support? Does this reason or evidence go with that important point? If you’re not sure how, the two might not go together after all.
do not recognize the work that different types of support provide…

  • What does this detail tell you about the important point? What information does it give? How does it help you understand the important point?

  • Look at Reading Thinking Step 3 for some different ways that authors use details to support their important points. What kind of details do you see?

RL.4.9

STANDARD

Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

SKILL

Compare and Contrast Treatment of Themes, Topics, or Patterns of Events in Stories from Different Cultures

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.9: COMPARE AND CONTRAST TREATMENT OF THEMES, TOPICS, OR PATTERNS OF EVENTS IN STORIES FROM DIFFERENT CULTURES
Step 1

What kind of texts are these?



  • What do you already know about author’s craft in this kind of text?

Step 2

Look for clues to culture in:



  • names.

  • setting.

ALTERNATE STEP 3 FOR TREATMENT OF THEME
Step 3

What theme is shared? Look for similar:



  • lessons.

  • problems and solutions.

  • symbols.

ALTERNATE STEP 3 FOR TREATMENT OF TOPIC
Step 3

What is the shared pattern of events? Look for similar:



  • sequences of events.

  • problems and responses.

Step 4

Compare treatment by looking at:



  • events and characters.

  • problems and solutions.

  • amount of detail and description.      

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ explains ways the two texts treat the shared theme/topic/pattern of events in a similar way and ways they treat it differently


▢ includes accurate text evidence to support ideas


▢ connects difference in treatment of theme/topic/pattern of events to the culture of the text


▢ identifies text types for both works

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
compare themes, topics, or patterns of events instead of treatment of these elements…

  • Notice the word treatment in Reading Thinking Step 4. What events and characters are in each text? What problems and solutions? How much detail and description is in each text?

  • What other differences in author’s craft so you see? What clues about culture do you see?

cannot
identify theme/topic
recognize patterns of events
[Match to the LO; Step 3 should be the main misconception supported.]…

  • Theme: What is a lesson the main character learns? What is a message the author wants us to think about?

  • Topic: What is the text mostly about? What ideas or details repeat in the words and pictures?

  • Patterns of Events: What events happen many times in the text? What other stories have patterns of events like this one? What happens to [character] over and over?

RI.4.9

STANDARD

Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

SKILL

Integrate Information from Two Texts on the Same Topic

PDF version of this skill coming soon.

Reading Thinking Steps Anchor Chart

 
READING THINKING STEPS ANCHOR CHART
RI.4.9: INTEGRATE INFORMATION FROM TWO TEXTS ON THE SAME TOPIC
Step 1What is the topic?
Step 2What is your question about the topic?
Step 3

What does each author say about your question?



  • key details and facts

  • examples, quotes, or anecdotes

Step 4

Put together what you learn from each text.



  • Use evidence from both texts.

  • Answer your question.

Sample Criteria for Success

 
SAMPLE SKILL CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS

▢ answers a specific question about a particular topic


▢ us two texts about that topic to find information


▢ includes accurate text evidence from both texts to support ideas

Potential Student Misconceptions

 
SKILL POTENTIAL STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS AND SCAFFOLDING IDEAS
If students…Ask/Say
uses information from only one text…In which text did you find that information? Can you find anything like it in the other text? How can you put the two pieces of information together?