Extension and Engagement Extension and Engagement

Grade 6

Share these activities with your students before, during, or after the module to build engagement and invite interest in module texts and to extend students’ interest in the module topics and themes after reading.




Text(s): The Great Depression from www.history.com

Visual Expression: Collage

“The Great Depression describes the causes of the Great Depression and its impact on all parts of society and America. It also explains how then-President Roosevelt was able to tap into the essential optimism of Americans and to both reassure and inspire. Create a collage that conveys information and ideas from the Great Depression

  • Search the Internet for photos or drawings from that period.

  • Include images, such as soup kitchens, breadlines, and rotting crops.

  • Include quotes from the article as well as your own words.

  • Share your collage with the class. 

Text(s): The Great Depression: Hoover’s Prodigal Children by Errol Lincoln Uys

Verbal Expression: Poem

During the Great Depression, many young men and boys rode the rails (trains) in search of food and employment. Write a poem from the point of view of one of the men interviewed in The Great Depression

  • Describe the experience of riding the rails, not knowing where you will sleep or where you will get food.

  • Convey feelings such as fear and worry, hope, despair, and gratitude.

  • Include details from the article.

Text(s): Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis

Visual Expression: Storyboards

Imagine that you are planning a film version of Bud, Not Buddy and you need to create storyboards.

  • Sketch the main events on index cards, and put the cards in order.

  • Decide which events and players to include in your film and whether to show them in the order they happened or use flashbacks.

  • Share your cards with classmates.

Text(s): “Mother to Her Son” and “Ballad of Roosevelt” by Langston Hughes

Connecting Texts: Dramatic Dialogue

Work with a partner to create and perform a dialogue that might occur between the speakers of the two poems.

  • Together try to imagine each speaker’s life and feelings.

  • Discuss what each person might say and how he or she might react to the other person’s words.

  • Write the dialogue.

  • Decide who will take each part.

  • Then perform the dialogue for the class.

Text(s): “How a Different America Responded to the Great Depressionby Jodie T. Allen, Pew Research Center

Performance Arts: Debate

During the Great Depression, the public generally believed that government should play an active role in addressing the nation’s problems. Even then, however, people had some reservations. Work in a small group to prepare your side for a debate about the proper role and size of government.

  • Decide which side your group will take.

  • Consider policies described in the article that are in place today or could be enacted. Which ones would your group support?

  • Together jot down notes for your side, and create an opening and closing statement.

  • Choose a student to represent your side in a debate.

  • Hold the debate, and have the class choose the winner, based on the strength of the arguments.




Text(s): New Face of Immigration by Cobblestone

NOTE: Guide students in locating immigrants willing to speak of their experiences and respecting the privacy of those who are not.

Cultural/Community Connection: Interview

The push/pull factors of immigration have been true for people throughout American history. Interview a family member, neighbor, or friend who has immigrated to the United States. Find someone who is comfortable sharing details of their private experience and respect the wishes of those who are not.

  • If the person is an adult, find out when he or she came to this country.

  • Ask about the push factors, or reasons for leaving another country.

  • Ask about pull factors, such as hopes and longings,

  • Ask what he or she most misses about the place he or she left.

  • Ask about ways in which dreams have been realized and any disappointments.

  • Share your findings with the class.

Text(s): Immigrant Kids by Russell Freedman

Verbal Expression: Poem

Immigrant Kids includes many photos of children among the 23 million immigrants who arrived in the United States between 1880 and 1920. Write a poem from the point of view of a child in one of the photos.

  • Notice the details in the photo that tell about the child’s experience.

  • Write a poem that conveys the child’s feelings and thoughts. You may focus just on the scene in the photo or include experiences before and/or after that scene.

  • Include details from the book that will help readers imagine the child’s life and understand his or her feelings.

  • Share the poem with the class.

Text(s): Esperanza Rising by Pam Muñoz Ryan

Performance Arts: Acting Out a Scene

In Esperanza Rising, the main character changes and grows from her experiences. Work in a small group to act out a scene from the book.

  • Choose a scene with enough characters so that everyone in your group can participate in some way.

  • Make sure that the scene has some dramatic moments.

  • Decide who will play each part and what each character will say.

  • Rehearse the scene a few times.

  • Perform the scene for the class.

Text(s): “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus

Visual Expression: Drawing

The Statue of Liberty, officially titled “Statue Enlightening the World,” was designed as a symbol of freedom. Emma Lazarus wrote “The Colossus” in 1884 when the statue was almost finished and before it was finally installed in 1885. The famous lines from the poem were not added until 1903. The waves of immigration in the years between had inspired the addition of the lines.

  • Think about the ideas in the poem that make the statue symbolize more than freedom.

  • Make a drawing of a new statue that might convey these additional meanings. Look for images in the poem, such as “mother of exiles.”

  • Share your drawing with the class. Explain the ideas that your statue is meant to communicate.

Text(s): All Module Texts

NOTE: Guide students toward respectful definitions in the first activity. The second activity describes teacher preparation and leadership.

Social Justice/Diversity: Definitions

“The Colossus” expanded the definition of America as a place of welcome. Other texts describe what being an American has meant to immigrants over the years.

  • In a small group, brainstorm what it means to be an American.

  • Write the definitions on a chart paper. You may want to begin your definition with the words An American is a person who.

  • Share your definitions with the class. Which ones are the same or overlap? Which ones are different?

Teaching Extension: Debunking Immigration Myths

Prejudice against new immigrants has been a problem throughout America’s history and remains so today. Help students unpack myths and stereotypes about immigration, using the resources of the Teaching Tolerance project: www.tolerance.org/magazine/spring-2011/ten-myths-about-immigration.

  • Prepare for the project by copying six of the myths on a piece of chart paper.

  • Create six stations in the classroom, and post a piece of chart paper at each station.

  • Organize six groups and assign each to a station.

  • Have each group discuss the myth for a few minutes and jot responses to these questions on the chart paper:

    • Where do you think the myth came from?

    • Who benefits?

    • Why do you think it’s not true.

  • Then have students read the discussion of their myth in tolerance.org/magazine/spring-2011/ten-myths-about-immigration

  • If time allows, have students read all the posted myths before investigating their group’s assigned myth.

  • Have each group share its findings with the class. 




Text(s): Blood on the River by Elisa Carbone

NOTE: The Teaching Extension activity is ideal for background building prior to reading, but can also be used to extend student interest during and after reading.

Teaching Extension: Virginia Company

Before reading Blood on the River, share the following information:

  • The events in the story happened about 150 years before the American Revolution.

  • The three ships that traveled to the New World were owned by the Virginia Company, which was given a charter (or permission) by British King James to create a colony in Virginia. The colony would be called Jamestown.

  • Colonists traveling on the ships made a contract with the Virginia Company to stay in the colony for seven years. Poor colonists would have to work for the company for seven years before they could get a small piece of land.

  • The Virginia Company and King James had three goals: to make money from selling the natural resources found in the New World, to create new markets for British goods, and to find a new route to the Far East,.

Visual Expression: Map

On p. 20 of Blood on the River, Sam describes the route the ships are taking to the New World.

  • Use the details in the book, and visit this site to find more information about the route: virginiaplaces.org/vacities/7jamestown.html

  • Find out why the route was chosen and where the ships stopped along the journey.

  • Print a map that shows North America, Europe, Africa, and the islands on the route, or draw a map that includes these places.

  • Indicate the route on the map in some way.

  • Share your map and findings with the class.

Social Justice/Equality: Group Discussion

In the 17th century, people in England occupied a class, or position, in society that came from their birth and wasn’t likely to change. For example, there were nobles who had titles such as Duke. There were gentlemen, who typically had education and came from landowning families. There were merchants, who traded products. They might have money, but they had less status than gentlemen. There were laborers, who worked for money, and indentured servants, who worked to earn their freedom. Discuss issues such as the following:

  • How did 17th century attitudes toward social class create conflict?

  • How did a person’s social class limit opportunities in England?

  • Captain Smith felt that gentlemen lacked the right skills for the New World and looked down on them as a result. Was he right?

  • Some people came to America seeking greater opportunities for wealth, believing they would be less limited by their social class. Is America still a land of opportunity? Why or why not?

  • Do you think there are social classes in America today? Why or why not?

Performance Arts: Acting Out a Scene

In Blood on the River, the settlers face great hardships and dangers, and conflicts often arise. Choose a dramatic scene from the story to act out with a partner or in a small group.

  • Decide who will play each part and what each character will say.

  • Rehearse the scene a few times.

  • Perform the scene for the class.

Content Areas: The Powhatan Tribe

In Blood on the River, Captain Smith speaks some Algonquian, the language of Chief Powhatan and his people. Find out other information about Chief Powhatan, the Powhatan empire, and the way of life of the Powhatan people.

Text(s): Written in Bone by Sally M. Walker

Verbal Expression: Poem or Anecdote

In Written in Bone, Sally Walker joined Dr. Owsley and his crew on their dig. She explains that she felt awe upon seeing the skeletons. She felt a connection to the people who had once lived and wondered about them.

  • Choose one of the people whose skeleton was unearthed.

  • Think about what the forensic anthropologists were able to learn about that person.

  • Think about what that person might say in answer to Walker’s question, “Who Were You?”

  • Write a poem or an anecdote from that person’s point of view. (Remember, an anecdote is a brief story that usually captures something important you want to convey.)

  • Share your writing orally with the class.

Performance Arts: Presentation

Imagine that you and a partner are forensic anthropologists who have been studying skeletons from the Jamestown or colonial Maryland site. You are preparing a presentation about one of the skeletons.

  • Together choose a person whose skeleton was described in Written in Bone, or create a character whose skeleton could have been found in one of the sites.

  • Use details from the book to explain how you figured out:

    • the person’s gender and age.

    • the possible cause of death.

    • the person’s ancestry.

    • whether or not the person did hard labor.

    • whether the person had recently arrived in the New World.

  • Together decide what photos or drawings to include in the presentation.

  • Decide with your partner which facts and images each of you will each present..

  • Present your findings to the class. Imagine that you are talking to a group of scientists.

Content Areas: Science

An understanding of the human anatomy is important for a forensic anthropologist, such as Doug Owslely. In a small group, research the human skeletal system to understand its functions and parts.

Text(s): All Module Texts

Visual Expression: Models

The settlers who arrived in Jamestown had to work together to build James Fort and their houses. Work in a small group to create models of the first James Fort and a settler’s house.

  • Look in the texts for details about the fort and the houses.

  • You may also want to search the Internet by “images of Jamestown.”

  • Brainstorm materials to use to create the fort and the house.

  • Work together to make the models.




Text(s): “Greek Society” by Mark Cartwright (https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/greek-society/

NOTE: Due to inappropriate content in surrounding text, print and distribute only the section titled “Classes” and the first paragraph of the section titled “Women.” The URL should not be shared with students.

Social Justice/Gender: Group Discussion

Athens was the model for modern democracies such as ours, but its laws did not extend the right to vote to women. Have students follow these steps to find out when women in America got the right to vote and to discuss the changing role of women over time and in different cultures:

  • Use this website to learn a little about American women’s fight for the vote: http://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/19th-amendment.

  • Discuss why women had to struggle for so long to get the right to vote and how some women had the right to vote before others.

  • Consider how rights for women are differently defined at different times or in different cultures.

Text(s): “Gorgo of Sparta” by Joshua J. Mark (http://www.ancient.eu/Gorgo_of_Sparta/)

Verbal/Visual Expression: Bumper Sticker

As Joshua Mark’s article explains, Gorgo was a smart and ethical woman. We know about these qualities from the brief anecdote in which she warned her father not to take a bribe. The article also describes Gorgo’s view that only Spartan women could raise Spartan men. Imagine the advice she might give to people around her.

  • Create a bumper sticker of Gorgo’s advice.

  • Use details from the article.

  • Try to convey her intelligence and her clear sense of right and wrong.

  • Use color, type styles, and design to make your bumper sticker easy to read and noticeable at 15 feet (roughly the length of one car away).

  • With permission, post your bumper sticker on a school wall or print it on sticker paper and put it on a parent’s car.

Text(s): “Prometheus” by Mark Cartwright (http://www.ancient.eu/Prometheus/)

Content Areas: Art

The article “Prometheus” refers to different versions of the myth, which portray Prometheus as clever trickster, hero, and/or victim. Artists since ancient times have explored the myth through their artwork.

  • Create your own drawing, painting, or piece of pottery to convey your ideas about Prometheus and his actions.

  • Share your artwork with the class.

Text(s): “Socrates” by History.com (http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/socrates)

Content Areas: Social Studies

Socrates and his followers expanded the role of philosophy from thinking about the outside world to focusing on inner values. Ancient Greek and Roman philosophers also generated other important ideas about philosophy:

  • Read the information about three other schools of philosophy: Skeptics, Cynics, and Stoics.

  • EE Grade 6 Mod 4 Table 1

    • Skeptics believed that people could not know truth fully and that certainty is impossible. People should therefore recognize the limits of their knowledge and their capacity to get knowledge, and approach learning with constant questioning.

    • Cynics believed in living according to Nature with very little comfort. They rejected wealth and its material trappings. They worked to be untouched by criticism for attitudes that were unusual at the time, and felt obligated to call attention to greed.

    • Stoics took some ideas from Cynics, believing that self-control and strength were the ways to control and overcome feelings that led away from rational judgments and actions. Stoics emphasize logic and self-examination.


  • Consider what each school believes. (f you want to learn more, visit this site http://www.philosophybasics.com/ and click on these or other Movements/Schools.)

  • Decide which philosophy is closest to yours.

  • Share your ideas with the class.

Text(s): The Odyssey by Gillian Cross

Performance Arts: Act Out a Scene

Gillian Cross’s retelling of The Odyssey focuses on more than one hero. She weaves together three narratives, including not only Odysseus’s journey but also Penelope’s and Telemachus’s triumph over hardship. Work in a small group to act out a scene that features one of these characters.

  • As a group, decide on your main character and choose a scene.

  • Decide who will play each character.

  • Include dialogue from the book and invent your own.

  • Rehearse the scene, using body language and simple props.

  • Perform the scene for the class.

Verbal Expression: Poem

Over the years, many writers have been inspired by Odysseus’ heroism and his long struggle to reach home after the war. In recent years, some writers have given voice to some of the powerful female figures he encountered along the way.

  • Search the Internet for “Circe’s Power” by Louise Gluck and “Siren” by Margaret Atwood.

  • Read each poem and think about its meaning.

  • Then choose one of those figures or another creature that Odysseus met on his journey.

  • Write a poem from that character’s point of view.

Content Areas: Art

Neil Packer’s illustrations vary greatly in style and add mystery and drama to Gillian Cross’s story. Imagine that you are one of the art editors and you can choose only six of Packer’s illustrations for the book. Work in a small group to make your choices.

  • Discuss each piece of artwork. Evaluate it for style, interest, and contribution to the story.

  • As a group, choose the six pieces of artwork to appear in the book.

  • Share your decisions with other small groups, explaining your choices.

Content Areas: Mathematics

Work with a partner to map Odysseus’s journey and estimate the number of miles he traveled.

  • Search the Internet by “Map of Odysseus’s journey.”

  • Together plot the stops Odysseus made on a map.

  • Using the scale on the source map, figure out approximately how many miles he traveled. You might need to position a piece of string along the route and then measure it.

  • Share your map and findings with classmates.

Visual/Verbal Expression: Travel Brochure

Work in a small group to create a travel brochure advertising the locations that Odysseus visited.

  • Decide on a tone. Will the brochure be serious or humorous?

  • Decide whether to include any advice or warnings.

  • Divide up the tasks in some way. For example, each student could focus on just one location, or some students could do the writing while others create the illustrations.

Text(s): All Module Texts

Content Areas: Architecture

Ancient Greece produced some of the great works of architecture and strongly influenced many modern buildings and cities around the world.




Texts about Ruby Bridges, Malala Yousafzai, and Nicholas Winton

Teaching Extension: Teaching Sensitive Topics (Discrimination, Racism, Sexism)

Access and read tools to support teaching sensitive topics, such as:



“Ruby Bridges” by Biography.com  http://www.biography.com/people/ruby-bridges-475426 

“Ruby Bridges (1954-)” by Womenshistory.org https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/ruby-bridges 

NOTE: Also see Teaching Extension: Teaching Sensitive Topics for this module.

Content Areas: Social Studies

In the late 1800s, the Supreme Court had ruled in the Plessy v. Ferguson case that it was constitutional for schools to be separate as long as they were “equal.” In 1954, the Supreme Court changed its ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, making school segregation illegal. Work with a small group to create a presentation about the impact of that ruling.

Content Areas: Art

Norman Rockwell shows Ruby walking to school between federal marshalls in his painting The Problem We All Live With. With a partner, discuss Rockwell’s choices in relation to the leadership theme.

  • Visit this site see the painting: https://www.nrm.org/2017/01.

  • Search the site by “The Problem We All Live With” to access several articles about it. Read the articles.

  • Discuss questions such as these:

    • Why does Rockwell only show Ruby’s head and face?

    • What are the details on the wall? Why? What is their impact on the viewer? What might be their impact on Ruby?

    • What other details are included in the picture?

    • What colors does he use? What do they convey?

    • What do you notice about Ruby’s posture and walk?

    • What do you think Rockwell is trying to convey about Ruby?

  • Discuss why the painting and Ruby’s walk to school continue to inspire viewers today?


“Profile: Malala Yousafzai” by BBC News http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-23241937 

“Malala the Powerful” by Kristin Lewis http://www.sps186.org/downloads/basic/586885/Malala%20the%20Powerful.pdf 

“The Story of Malala Yousafzai” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIqOhxQ0-H8    


NOTE: Also see Teaching Extension: Teaching Sensitive Topics for this module.

Field Trip: The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis

The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis has a permanent exhibit called The Power of Children. In it, they focus on three children who were leaders: Anne Frank, Ryan White, and Ruby Bridges. For each of these young people, the museum recreated an important environment—Ruby’s classroom, Ryan’s bedroom, and the annex where Anne Frank wrote her famous diary as she hid with her family from the Nazis.

  • Take a physical or virtual field trip to learn about the Power of Children exhibit: https://thehistory.childrensmuseum.org/exhibits/power-children

  • Imagine that you can add Malala’s story and contributions to the exhibit.

  • Decide how you will show her story.

  • Will you recreate an environment? If so, which one?

  • Which photographs might you show?

  • How will you show her speeches?

  • Make a list of your ideas.

  • Share your ideas with the class.

Performance Arts: Song or Rap

  • Create a song or rap inspired by the readings about Malala.

  • Choose your focus. For example, you might focus on Malala’s courage or her ideas about the power of young people to make a difference.

  • Create the words or lyrics and choose the music or beat. For a song, use familiar music or make up your own.

  • Perform your song or rap for the class.

Social Justice/Gender: Group Discussion

From 2007–2009, the Taliban controlled Swat Valley where Malala lived. They required men to wear long beards and women to be covered completely, except for their eyes. They also forbade girls from going to school. According to the Taliban, education is not necessary for girls since a woman’s only role is to care for her husband and children.

  • In a small group, discuss questions of gender equality, such as these:

    • Do you agree with Malala that education is a right and that women have the right to be educated?

    • How important is it for all members of a society to be educated?

    • Should the roles of men and women within a family be different? Should only women be required to take care of children?

    • Should women have careers outside of the home? Why or why not?

  • Share your ideas with the class.

Visual/Verbal Expression: Signs

A stereotype is an unfair belief that all members of a group are the same. Gender stereotypes claim that all girls or all boys have the same characteristics. With a small group, explore gender stereotyping. Then create signs that serve as a reminder to avoid these stereotypes.

  • Discuss questions like these to make yourselves aware of possible stereotypes:

    • Do all girls hate snakes? Do all boys love them? Do all boys fear the same things? Do all girls?

    • Are boys better at certain subjects? Are girls better at other subjects?

    • Are there traits that all girls have? Are there traits that all boys have?

    • Are there certain careers that only men or women should have?

    • How might stereotyping result in unfair situations?

  • Brainstorm slogans with gender-equality messages, such as these:

  • Give it a rest—no group is best.

  • Gender doesn’t limit you.

  • Choose one slogan to write on a sign. Display it in the room.


“Nicholas Winton and the Rescue of Children from Czechoslovakia, 1938–1939” https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007780

“In His Own Words: Rescuer Nicholas Winton” by Nicholas Winton https://www.ushmm.org/learn/holocaust-encyclopedia/nicholas-winton 


NOTE: The first two activities prepare students for reading the texts. You may choose to show the video and supplement the discussion with information from the first activity. Note that the video is told from a child’s point of view but does contain difficult material. Also see Teaching Extension: Teaching Sensitive Topics for this module.

Teaching Extension: Build Background on World War II

  • In preparation for reading the texts, share this information:

  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came to power in Germany in the 1930s.

  • Hitler intended to create what he called a super race by excluding people he considered undesirable. Among these were Jews, Gypsies, and those with physical or mental challenges.

  • Hitler also tried to conquer Europe and began by annexing parts of surrounding countries. When German troops invaded Poland in 1939, World War II began.

  • The Nazis persecuted Jews and other “undesirables” in Germany and in the countries they invaded.

  • The Jews were an especially persecuted group. The Nazis destroyed Jewish stores and places of worship, took Jews’ property and businesses, and forced Jews to live in cramped quarters in walled-off ghettoes with little access to food or medicine.

  • Later, the Nazis sent Jews to concentration camps where six million Jews were murdered. This terrible event is called the Holocaust.

  • Some Jewish parents managed to save their children through the Kindertransport (Children’s Transport), an informal name for a series of rescue efforts that brought children to Great Britain. You will learn about one of the people who helped save children this way.

  • The war ended in 1945, with the defeat of Germany by the Allied Powers, which included Britain, Russia, China, and the United States.

Teaching Extension: Build Background About the Holocaust

  • Have students watch this video, which describes how one child survived the Holocaust: https://www.ushmm.org/information/exhibitions/museum-exhibitions/remember-the-children-daniels-story/ 

  • Ask questions such as these:

  • What was life like for kids before the Nazis came to power. (It was a lot like modern students’ lives.)

  • What was life like in the early years of the Nazis? (Jewish stores and places of worship were destroyed and kids could not go to school. Jews thought they would be chased out of Germany.)

  • Where were Jews sent at first? (to ghettos) What was life like there? (Families lived one room and had little to eat.)

  • Point out that Daniel and his family were sent to a concentration camp, where only Daniel survived.

  • Discuss with students why it is important to remember stories such as Daniel’s.

  • Tell students that they will read about a man named Nicholas Winton who risked his life to save Jewish children from the camps. Discuss why it is important to read and remember stories about people like Winton.

Content Areas: Geography

From 1938 to 1939, Nicholas Winton saved a total of 669 Jewish children from the Holocaust. Eight trainloads succeeded in reaching their destination. The trains traveled from Prague, Czechoslovakia, through Nuremberg, Germany, to reach Hoek Van Holland, a town on the coast of the Netherlands. From there, the children traveled by ship to Harwich, England and finally boarded a train to London.

  • Work with a small group to trace the journey on a map of Europe.

  • You may need to study maps of individual countries to find some of the places named above.

  • To trace the journey, create your own map of the relevant areas or add sticky notes to a real map.

  • Share your map with the class.

Text(s): Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World: The Extraordinary True Story of Shackleton and the Endurance by Jennifer Armstrong

NOTE: The first activity helps students prepare for reading the text.

Teaching Extension: Background on Antarctica and Explorers

Before reading Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World, elicit students’ knowledge of exploration. As needed, share this information: .

  • Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent on Earth.

  • It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean, half of which freezes in the winter.

  • Because Antarctica is surrounded by oceans, conditions there are more extreme than in the Arctic, which is an ocean surrounded by land.

  • The lowest recorded temperature in Antarctica is -89.2 degrees Centigrade (-128.56 Fahrenheit).

  • Antarctica is also the highest continent, which means that explorers are vulnerable to altitude sickness as well as frostbite.

  • The only life in Antarctica is near the coast.

  • Before the twentieth century no one had been to Antarctica, and explorers competed to be the first. An expedition led by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole on December 14, 1911—five weeks before a party led by British explorer Captain Robert Scott.

Content Areas: Geology

Antarctica and the other continents were once part of a supercontinent called Pangaea.

  • Visit this site to understand the changes that took place over time: https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/pltec/gpangaea.html 

  • Trace the shapes of continents on a world map.

  • Cut out the continents.

  • Show how they once fit together to make Pangea. Attach them to paper, using glue or paste.

  • Locate Laurasia and Gondwanaland.

  • Add a brief explanation of the changes that led to the current continents. Use your own words.

Content Areas: Science

Shackleton and his crew encountered pack ice, which is solid or broken up ocean ice. They also saw many icebergs, which are mostly made of fresh water. The icebergs in Antarctica can be as long as five miles. Complete an experiment to better understand icebergs.

  • Fill an ice tray with water and freeze it.

  • Place four ice cubes in a bowl of water.

  • Observe the ice cubes. How much of the ice is above water? How much is below?

Performance Arts: Sound Recording

On March 11, 1915, the crew encountered the iceberg “Rampart Berg.” Frank Worsley described the sounds he heard this way: “Close to the berg the pressure makes all sorts of quaint noises. We heard tapping as from a hammer, grunts, groans and squeaks, electric trains running, birds singing, kettles boiling noisily, and an occasional swish as a large piece of ice, released from pressure, suddenly jumped or turned over.”

  • Create a recording of the sounds that Worsley described.

  • Share your recording with the class.

Content Areas: Math

Shackleton and five men traveled on a lifeboat for 800 miles over 16 days. They brought a stove and matches, 6 sleeping bags, 6 cases of food, 36 gallons of water, 250 pounds of ice, and instruments, such as a compass, charts, and binoculars. The measurements of the boat were approximately 23.0 feet long, 7.0 feet wide, and 2.5 feet deep at deepest point.

  • Create a diagram of the ship by scaling down the dimensions. Use this scale: 10 inches = 1 inch.

  • Begin by changing feet to inches. (Remember that 12 inches equals one foot.)

  • Draw the diagram.

  • Draw the listed items within the diagram to get a sense of how much space they would take up.

Discuss what it might be like to live on such a small boat for that length of time.

All Module Texts

Visual Expression: Leadership Poster

Create a poster showing ten important traits of a leader.

Social Justice/Gender: Leadership Styles

Leadership opportunities for women are gradually increasing in business and other areas. Do women and men have different leadership styles and strengths? Work with a small group to explore this question.