Language Vocabulary Skill Mini-lessons Language/Vocabulary Skill Mini-lessons

Grade 8

The vocabulary/language mini-lessons support students and teachers with vocabulary knowledge and skills. The mini-lessons are written for specific texts, which teachers need to access for instruction. Teachers can also adapt them to other texts or even other grades. The mini-lessons cover language standards L.4 and L.5, which are the standards with greatest focus on vocabulary as it applies to reading.

LV Grade 8 Language Standard

 
LANGUAGE STANDARDASSOCIATED WHEATLEY TEXTSASSOCIATED WHEATLEY READING LESSONS
M1M2M3M4M5
L.8.4Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
L.8.4.AUse context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning.

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice

2, 3

Excerpt from “ Letter from a Birmingham Jail”

2
L.8.4.BUse common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).

“Chicago”

1

The Great Fire

22
L.8.4.CConsult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice

1

“Before Rosa Parks: A Teenager Defied Segregation on an Alabama Bus” Podcast

1

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

14
L.8.4.DVerify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

15
L.8.5Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5.AInterpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

20
L.8.5.BUse the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.

“Long-Suffering Cubs Fans”

11

The Great Fire

17
L.8.5.CDistinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice

7

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

28

GRADE 8: MODULE 1

GRADE 8: MODULE 1

 
“Chicago”

L.8.4.B

Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use Latin affixes and roots to determine the meaning of unknown words.


  2. Display this sentence, calling attention to the word Reconstruction:

    • After Reconstruction, Southern state legislatures passed laws requiring racial segregation in all aspects of life, including housing, transportation, education, recreation, and marriage.



  3. Explain that “outside” clues are sparse because Reconstruction is mentioned as a time period; it is not the main topic of the sentence. Ask: What “outside” clues do you see?

    Possible Student Responses:



    • Reconstruction starts with a capital letter, showing it is a specific time or event rather than a general one.

    • Reconstruction happened in the South.



  4. Ask: What evidence can be found inside the word to help us determine its meaning?

    • The prefix re– means “again,” as in the words rerun, replay, redo, etc.

    • The root struct or construct means “to build.”

    • Reconstruction means “building something again.”




  5. Explain that after the U.S. Civil War, the South had to build itself again after so much destruction.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students to define involuntary (unwilling).


Reteach



  • Remind students that a volunteer does things willingly and that the prefix in– can mean “not.”


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Have students write a sentence using the word reconstruct.


Reteach



  • Review the meanings of the prefix re– and the root struct. Have students work in pairs to create a sentence using rebuild or build again and then rewrite the sentence using reconstruct.

The Great Fire

L.8.5.B

Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.

  2. Refer to the displayed vocabulary words (singed, engulfed, and smolder) and sentences displayed on the board. Ask a volunteer to read the first word and sentence. Support pronunciation as needed.

  3. Invite students to use context clues to make inferences about the meaning of the word. Encourage textual evidence to support inferences. Clarify the definition if needed. (singed—burned something slightly)

  4. Repeat this process for engulfed (covered entirely) and smolder (to burn slowly and with smoke, but little or no flame).

  5. TURN AND TALK: Say: Thinking about these words in terms of intensity, arrange the words from least intense to most intense. (singesmolderengulf)

  6. Reconvene the students and discuss their arrangements. Ask why Murphy uses so many similar words to describe the action of a burning fire.

    Sample Student Responses:



    • The fire is not a single, simple thing; rather, it has different “moods” or actions depending on the situation.

    • The words allow Murphy to show the gradually increasing intensity of the fire as it grows.




Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students to explain the difference between smolder and singe.


Reteach



  • Show students visual representations of singe, engulf, and smolder to increase their understanding.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Ask students to explain the difference between engulfed and singed. (If something is engulfed with flames, it is fully covered with flames. If something is singed, it is slightly burned.)


Reteach



  • Use the RETEACH in CHECK VOCABULARY SKILLS to support students.

The Great Fire

L.8.4.B

Advance Preparation



  1. Display the following quotation from Frear: “I saw the smoke and flames pouring out of State Street, from the very point we had just left, and the intervening space was filled with the whirling embers that beat against the houses and covered the roofs and windowsills.”

  2. Display the following sentence: The preschool teachers mostly let the children work out their quarrels, intervening only when absolutely necessary.


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use prefixes and roots to determine the meaning of intervening

  2. Refer to the displayed quotation from Alexander Frear. Ask: What evidence can be found inside the word “intervening” to help us determine its meaning? (the prefix inter–)

  3. Have students to consider the prefix inter–. Ask: What words do you know that have the prefix inter–? (interstate, interrupt, international, intercept)

  4. Write their ideas on the board. Ask students to infer what inter– means. (Inter– means “between.”) 


  5. Tell students that the root ven– means “to come.” Point out other words with the same root, and discuss how each has the meaning “come” in it:



    • advent: the advent is the same as the arrival of something, as in the advent of spring

    • convene: to come together, as in convene a group of experts

    • circumvent: to come around something in a circle instead of going through it



  6. Ask students how knowledge of the two word parts helps them understand the quotation from Frear. (The intervening space is the space between where Frear is standing and the point from which he came.)

  7. Explain that intervening can describe time as well as space; the intervening time is the time that comes between two events.

  8. TURN AND TALK: Refer to the second displayed sentence. Have students turn and talk with a partner to see whether they can determine the meaning of intervening in this example (getting involved in a situation in order to alter an outcome).


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students when parents or teachers may intervene in their lives. (They may intervene when a student is about to make a poor choice or when a student needs help.)


Reteach



  • Review the meaning of inter– and ven–. Have students explain how those word parts help you understand the meaning of the word.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Write a sentence about the Great Fire using the word intervening.


Reteach



  • Review the meaning of intervening and have students create their own visual image of the word.

“Long-Suffering Cubs Fans”

L.8.5.B

Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. Use the relationship between words in the article to understand better each of the words.

  2. Prior to class, write these vocabulary words on the board or on chart paper: condemned, tangible, repository, demise, pessimistic, scuffed, demolition, clemency, reprieve, transfixed.

  3. Point to the words on the board or paper, and tell students that they will use word-mapping to answer this question: “How are these vocabulary words related to the cursed Cubs ball?”

  4. Briefly share meaning for these words:

    • condemned (para. 4): doomed; caused bad things to happen to

    • pessimistic (para. 16): expecting bad or undesired things to happen

    • scuffed (para. 1): having a scraped or damaged surface



  5. Organize students into groups of four. Have students fold a sheet of paper in quarters, labeling the center “Words That Describe” and the quarters “the Ball,” “Cubs Fans,” “What Will Happen to the Ball,” and “What Will Not Happen to the Ball.” Display your organizer, prepared in advance.

  6. Have groups discuss to determine and place each word in the correct quadrant.

  7. Elicit groups’ ideas. Ask groups to explain reasoning when their ideas differ.

    Sample Student Responses:



    • Words That Describe the Ball: tangible, scuffed, repository

    • Words That Describe Cubs Fans: transfixed, pessimistic

    • What Will Happen to the Ball: demise, demolition, condemned

    • What Is Unlikely to Happen to the Ball: clemency, reprieve




Check Vocabulary Skills



  1. Write the word transfixed on the board.

  2. Ask students to locate the word in the article, read the surrounding sentence, and identify whom the word describes. (the fans)

  3. Ask students to explain how the author uses the word. (Transfixed shows the attitude of the fans who watch the ball being destroyed.)


Reteach



  1. Write the word pessimistic on the board.

  2. Ask students to locate the word in the article, read the surrounding sentence, and identify whom the word describes. (the fans)

  3. Ask students to explain how the author uses the word. (Pessimistic shows the attitude of the fan who doesn’t believe the curse is gone.)


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Ask students to explain in writing how the words demise and demolition are connected in the article.

    Sample Student Response:



    • Both words are used to describe the destruction of the cursed ball.




Reteach



  • Return to the article and ask students to reread paragraphs 2 and 5. Ask: What is each word referring to?

GRADE 8: MODULE 2

GRADE 8: MODULE 2

 
Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice
“Before Rosa Parks, A Teenager Defied Segregation on an Alabama Bus” Podcast


L.8.4.C

Advance Preparation




    1. Project an online dictionary and an online thesaurus throughout the lesson.

    2. Display these sentences from the “Before Rosa Parks…” podcast, and use them when referenced during the lesson:


    Excerpt 1: “Everything changed,” she says. “I lost most of my friends. Their parents had told them to stay away from me, because they said I was crazy, I was an extremist.”


     Excerpt 2: “When she got to school the following Monday after the arrest, it was a very divisive thing. On one hand, some students were impressed by her courage. On the other hand, there were many students who thought Claudette had made things tougher for them now, and they didn’t appreciate it one bit.”


     Excerpt 3: “There was a precedent for African Americans refusing to surrender their seats to white passengers. What was without precedent, though, is she wanted to get a lawyer and she wanted to fight.”




Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use a dictionary and thesaurus to clarify the precise meaning of a word.

  2. Ask: What is a dictionary? What is a thesaurus? (A dictionary lists words in alphabetical order and gives the pronunciation, part of speech, and definition for each word. A thesaurus lists words and arranges them into groups of synonyms, or words with related meanings)

  3. Display and read aloud Excerpt 1 from the “Before Rosa Parks…” podcast. (See ADVANCE PREPARATION.)

  4. Ask students to draw inferences about the meaning of extremist.

  5. Refer to the projected dictionary and look up Locate the correct definition. If the definition uses the word extreme to define extremist, ask: How can you define extremist without using the root of the word? Guide students to look up extreme and use its definition to create their definition of extremist.

  6. Refer to the projected thesaurus and look up Have students discuss synonyms for the word. Ask: How are the synonyms related? Encourage students to use a dictionary, if needed.

  7. Remind students that a dictionary can be a valuable tool to both readers and writers to clarify the precise meaning of a word. Point out that a thesaurus can help writers add variety to word choice and avoid repetition.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students to list situations when a dictionary and thesaurus would be helpful.


Reteach



  1. Read Excerpt 2 from the podcast. (See ADVANCE PREPARATION.)

  2. Use an online dictionary and thesaurus to clarify the meaning of the word


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Have students explain in writing how the reference materials clarified or deepened their understanding of the word

    Sample Student Response:
    The dictionary helped me understand that an extremist is not necessarily crazy but rather holds views that most people consider unreasonable.




Reteach



  1. Read Excerpt 3 from the podcast. (See ADVANCE PREPARATION.)

  2. Use an online dictionary and thesaurus to clarify the meaning of the word precedent.

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice + Excerpt from “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

L.8.4.A

Advance Preparation



  1. Create a Context Clues Anchor Chart with definitions and examples of the following types of context clues: definition, example, explanation, synonym, contrast or antonyms.

  2. Display this excerpt from paragraph 13 of “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.”:

    • “How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.”



Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use context as a clue to determine the meaning of a word.

  2. Explain that context refers to other words in a text—words or phrases in the sentence with the unknown word and in the surrounding sentences. Refer to the displayed Context Clues Anchor Chart and review the definitions and examples. (See ADVANCE PREPARATION.)

  3. Refer to the displayed excerpt from paragraph 13 of “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” (See ADVANCE PREPARATION.)

  4. Ask: What clues does Martin Luther King, Jr. provide to explain the meaning of the word just? (“squares with the moral law or the law of God,” “uplifts human personality”) What clues does he provide that show the opposite meaning of just? (“out of harmony with the moral law,” “not rooted in eternal law and natural law,” “degrades human personality”).

  5. Explain that this is a very challenging passage; however, students still can use the clues to draw inferences about the meaning of the word Ask: Based on these clues, what does the word just mean? (fair, right, good, decent, moral).

  6. Have students follow along while you read the last paragraph on p. 3 of Claudette Colvin, beginning with “If, like Claudette.”

  7. Ask: What is the meaning of segregation? What examples in the text serve as context clues? Call on several students to share.

    Sample Student Responses:



    • Segregation means “separating people into racial groups.”

    • Context clues: having babies in different hospitals; living in different neighborhoods; having different kinds of jobs; using different elevators, trains, buses, water fountains, pools, theaters, and parks


  8. Review that texts often include unfamiliar words and that using context clues can help students identify and infer meaning.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students how certain context clues helped them figure out the meaning of just in “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” (“squares with the moral law” and “uplifts human personality” are synonyms; “out of harmony with the moral law” and “not rooted in eternal law” are antonyms).

Reteach



  • Review the different types of context clues: definition, example, explanation, synonym, contrast, antonyms, and punctuation. Explain what each type of context clue is and how it can be used to determine the meaning of the word.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Ask student how context clues can help them determine the meaning of the word detested in the chapter title “Jim Crow and the Detested Number Ten” from Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. Encourage students to use context clues from within the chapter.

    Sample Student Response:


    Detested means “hated” Since 10 was the number of seats reserved for whites under the Jim Crow Laws, I would think that black people would hate the number.


Reteach



  1. Remind students that often we need to use clues from the text to draw inferences about the meaning of a word.
  2. Ask: What do you know about the number 10 based on this chapter? (10 was the number of seats reserved for whites on the bus) How did black people feel about that number?

Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice

L.8.4.A

Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use context as a clue to the meaning of a word.

  2. Review that context is important because a word sometimes has multiple meanings, and it is important to see how the word is being used before choosing the correct meaning.

  3. Write the word depressed on the board and ask students if they know what it means. Have them write their ideas on a piece of paper to return to after they analyze the word in context.

  4. Direct students to p. 15 of Claudette Colvin and reread the paragraph beginning, “When Claudette turned eight.” Point out the sentence that describes King Hill as “a depressed and dangerous neighborhood.” As they read, have students look for clues that might explain how Claudette’s neighborhood is Make a list of relevant words and terms, such as

    • unpaved streets

    • outdoor toilets

    • dangerous area



  5. Have students draw inferences about the meaning of depressed based on this context. Provide scaffolding as needed for students to determine that these words and phrases indicate a neighborhood without modern improvements that is subject to neglect or crime. Based on the context, depressed seems to refer to a neighborhood that is dealing with economic hardships and other challenges.

  6. Have students check for the accurate definition in a dictionary.

  7. Ask students to compare the formal definition with the one they wrote earlier.

  8. Review that some words have multiple meanings and that the context often provides clues about which meaning is being used.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Have students explain how the context clues helped them determine the meaning of depressed.


Reteach



  • Recall that students may find context clues in the same sentence as the unknown word or in the surrounding sentences. The author may provide a definition, example, explanation, or synonym. Sometimes, readers can draw inferences based on details that show contrast or on antonyms, which are words that are opposite in meaning to the unknown word. Punctuation, such as quotation marks, commas, dashes, brackets, and italics also can serve as clues.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Direct students to p. 19, to the paragraph beginning “After that, I began to question . . . .” Have students write a definition of deliverance based on context clues and explain how the clues helped them define

    Sample Student Response:


    The words “I was praying for God to take her” helped me determine that deliverance means “recovery or relief” in this context.




Reteach



  • Provide scaffolding to help students identify the context clues provided (“I was praying for God to take her”) and infer that deliverance means recovery or relief in this context.
Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice

L.8.5.C

Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.

  2. Have students reread Claudette’s narration on p. 45 of Claudette Colvin, paying close attention to the word burly in this sentence about Rosa Parks: “She said, ‘You’re Claudette Colvin? Oh, my God, I was lookin’ for some big old burly overgrown teenager who sassed white people out . . . .‘ “

  3. Have students infer the meaning of the word based on context clues, and then confirm their definitions using a dictionary.

  4. Direct students to define the words big and overgrown and answer these questions:

    • How are the words burly, big, and overgrown similar?

    • How are they different?

    • How can you infer the meaning of the word burly from big and overgrown?



  5. Explain that while the words are similar in meaning, they create slightly different feelings in readers or listeners. These are the connotations of the word—the feelings the word conveys in addition to its direct meaning.

    • Burly means large and strong, and suggests a heavily built person with a noisy presence..

    • Big simply means very large.

    • Overgrown means too big for one’s age, or large beyond the normal size.



  6. Tell students that slight differences in definition and connotation can be very important to meaning: you can be burly but not overgrown, or overgrown but not big (for example, an overgrown mouse is still not big). These words are used together to describe the type of teenager Rosa Parks thought Claudette was, but each word has its own meaning.

  7. Have students turn to p. 39 and complete the same process for the word integrity (in the quote beginning, “The wonderful thing which you have just done . . .”). Have students share their answers and definitions of courage and self-respect.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students to explain the difference between brave, daring, and gutsy.


Reteach



  1. Review that while the words are similar in meaning, they create slightly different feelings in readers or listeners.

  2. Ask: How is a brave person different from a gutsy person? What do we learn about a person who is described as daring?


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Have students explain in writing the difference between strong, powerful, and tough.

    Sample Student Response:

    If you are powerful, you can influence other people. If you are strong, you may be physically or emotionally strong. If you are tough, you are willing to get involved in challenging situations and stay confident.




Reteach


  • Help students see the different connotations of these words by asking: What can a strong person do? What can a powerful person do? What can a tough person do?

GRADE 8: MODULE 4

GRADE 8: MODULE 4

 
A Midsummer Night’s Dream

L.8.4.C

Advance Preparation



  • Prepare to display this annotated example from the notes section on p. 6 of Midsummer Night’s Dream

    [Line number] [word or term]: [definition]
    1. our nuptial hour: the time for our wedding



Materials



  • Midsummer Night’s Dream (pp. 6–7, 8–9; displayed)


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT consult reference materials to determine the meaning of a word.

  2. Explain that in Wheatley’s text for Midsummer Night’s Dream, words and phrases are defined in notes sections on each left page of the play.

  3. Display the annotated example from p. 6, and explain that the number indicates the line number of the word on the right side of the page. This helps readers find the notes they need as they read. 

    [Line number] [word or term]: [definition]

    1. our nuptial hour: the time for our wedding



  4. Display pp. 6–7 of Midsummer Night’s Dream. Lead students in finding lingers on line 4 on the right page and the definition of lingers in the notes section on the left page.

  5. Point out that the defined words are not bolded or italicized in the play, so students should check the left side of the page when there is a word or phrase that is confusing. Explain that they should look for the line number of the word or phrase to see if the definition is provided.

  6. Reiterate that the notes section is a valuable resource as students read Shakespeare, and encourage them to use it.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask: What does the number before the word or phrase in the notes section on the left page indicate? (the line number of the defined word or phrase)


Reteach



  • Have partners explain to each other how to use the notes section on the left side. (Look for the line number of the word or phrase to see if the definition is provided.)


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Display pp. 8–9. Have students find the words be advised in line 47 of p. 9 and the definition on p. 8. Ask them to rewrite the line, using the definition in place of the words.

    Sample Student Response:
    What say you, dear Hermia. Think carefully, dear maid.



Reteach


• Students may struggle to use the notes section if they cannot determine the line number of a word. Work with students individually to ensure that they can determine the line number of a specific line in the play.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

L.8.4.D

Advance Preparation



  • Prepare to display this excerpt from A Midsummer Night’s Dream: “Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires,/Know of your youth.” (I.i.69–70)


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use the notes section in A Midsummer Night’s Dream as a dictionary to verify the meaning of a word.

  2. Explain that before consulting a dictionary or notes section, readers should use context clues to draw an inference about the meaning of a word. Say: When you look up the word, you can confirm or change your understanding.

  3. Display the excerpt (I.i.69–70): “Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires,/Know of your youth”

  4. Ask: What do you think the phrase know of means based on this context? (have the knowledge of, think about)

  5. Refer students p. 10 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and have them read the definition provided in the notes section. (learn from)

  6. Ask: How did the definition confirm or change your understanding? (It changed my understanding because I thought it meant “to think about.”)

  7. Reiterate that students should use dictionaries, and for this play, the notes section, to confirm or change their understanding of the meaning of a word or phrase.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  1. Direct students to p. 13 of the play. Have partners read lines 85–92 and infer meanings based on context. Then have them check the meanings in the notes.

  2. Ask volunteers to share how the notes section confirmed or changed their understanding of specific words or phrases.


Sample Student Response:


 We thought protest meant speak out against, but, the notes defined it as “vow,” which changed the meaning of the line completely.



Reteach



  • Ensure that students are sharing their inferred meaning and how the meaning was confirmed or changed through the use of the notes section.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Have students read lines 93–94 on p. 13 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Ask them to write a preliminary definition of “crazed title” based on the context. Then have them check the notes section and revise the definition if needed.


Sample Student Response:

Preliminary definition: crazy title


Revised definition: flawed claim



Reteach



  • Remind students that since the play was written in the late 1500s, the meaning of some of the words has changed. Readers should use the meanings that is conveyed through Shakespeare’s use of the words.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

L.8.5.A

(See NOTE for L.8.4.C lesson.)

Advance Preparation



  1. Prepare to display the horse pun. (http://www.5027mac.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/7d2345fb0aa81c60b3a7abc69c966528.jpg)

  2. Prepare to display these excerpts from Midsummer Night’s Dream:

    Excerpt 1: Hermia: “Lie further off, yet, do not lie so near.” (II.ii..50) Lysander “For lying so, I do not lie.” (II.ii.58)


    Excerpt 2: Bottom: “I see their knavery. This is to make an ass of me, to fright me, if they could.” (III.i.122–123)


    Excerpt 3: Lysander: Less than an ace, man, for he is dead. He is nothing. (V.i.325–326)




Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT interpret puns in context in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

  2. Explain that a pun is a humorous play on words based on two words that are close in sound but different in meaning.

  3. Display the horse pun, and use it to share and model the steps for interpreting a pun:

    • Identify the word that has a double meaning. Say: In this image, the word hoarse has two meanings.

    • Determine the two meanings of the word. Say: The words horse and hoarse sound alike, but they have different meanings. A horse is a type of animal, and you are hoarse when you lose your voice.

    • Explain the humor in the pun. Say: The image is funny because it is a small horse who has lost his voice and is hoarse.



  4. Point out that sometimes a pun is based on a word that has more than one meaning but only one spelling. Elicit from students that the word lie can mean “be in a horizontal position” or “tell an untruth.”

  5. Have students turn to p. 57 of Midsummer Night’s Dream and follow along as you read aloud lines 49–58. Tell them to pay close attention to the words lie and

  6. Display Excerpt 1 containing the pun: Hermia: “Lie further off, yet, do not lie so near.” (II.ii.50) Lysander “For lying so, I do not lie.” (II.ii.58)

  7. Say: The pun in these lines is based on the two meanings of lie and lying. Hermia tells Lysander to lie at a distance from her. Lysander argues that since their hearts are one in “troth” or a vow, lying physically next to her would not be lying in the sense of telling an untruth. Rather it would be a form of faithfulness.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Display and read aloud Excerpt 2: Bottom: “I see their knavery. This is to make an ass of me, to fright me.” Have partners identify the pun and explain its meaning.

    Sample Student Response:


    The word ass has two meanings. It means “fool” and “donkey.” It is funny because Bottom thinks his friends have tried to make a fool of him and his head has been turned into a donkey head, but he doesn’t even know it.




Reteach



  • Guide students through the steps for interpreting a pun by asking: Which word has a double meaning? (ass) What are the two meanings? (donkey and fool). Why is this funny? (Bottom thinks his friends have tried to make a fool of him, and his head has been turned into a donkey head.).


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  1. Have students reread lines 322–326 on p. 165 of Midsummer Night’s Dream. Point out that Bottom speaks line 322 in his role as Pyramus.

  2. Then display Excerpt 3: Less than an ace, man, for he is dead. He is nothing. (V.i.325–326) Have students identify the pun in lines 325–326 and explain its meaning.

    Sample Student Response: An ace refers to one spot on a die, and in this case, to one person. When pronounced “ass,” ace can mean “a donkey” or “a fool.” Lysander says that Bottom, being dead, is less than an ace, because zero or nothing is less than one. He also means that Bottom, being dead, is no longer a fool or a donkey.




Reteach



  • Review that puns are used to evoke humor, and review the steps for interpreting puns.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

L.8.5.C

(See NOTE for L.8.4.C lesson.)

Advance Preparation



  • Prepare to display these words and definitions of Tier 2 words from the module:


    • reason: (II,ii, 122) wisdom, sense, intelligence

    • wit: (III, i, 136) the ability to judge people and situations keenly and quickly and to make good decisions based on these judgments

    • enamored: (III, i, 140) inspired love or fondness

    • enthralled: (III, i, 141) held the complete attention; fascinated; charmed


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT explain the difference between words with similar denotations.

  2. Recall that connotation is the idea or feeling that a word gives you and denotation is the dictionary definition of a word.

  3. Explain that even though words may have similar denotations, they can have subtle differences in meaning due to different connotations.

  4. Present and model the steps for analyzing the difference between words with similar denotations using reason and wit:

    • Determine the meaning of the first word. Recall the word reason from MODULE 4, LESSON 18 and have students provide the denotation based on the context of A Midsummer Night’s Dream (wisdom, sense, intelligence).

    • Determine the meaning of the second word. Have a student read aloud the posted definition of wit. (the ability to judge people and situations keenly and quickly and to make good decisions based on these judgments)

    • Ask: How are the denotations similar? (Both reason and wit relate to thinking or being smart.)

    • Ask: How are the connotations different? (Wit refers to thinking in the moment or quickly, whereas reason does not have this same connotation. Reason relates to being intelligent but does not have an association with time.)



  5. Point out that noticing and analyzing the difference in connotation between words with similar denotations will help students understand central ideas more deeply.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Have students restate the steps for analyzing the difference between words with similar denotations.


Reteach



  • Review that subtle differences in connotation can change the meaning of the word.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Display the remaining prepared definitions. Have students answer this question: What is a similarity and a difference between the meanings of enthralled and enamored?


Sample Student Response:

Both words refer to having positive feelings for another person. However, enamored relates to feelings of love, while enthralled relates to feelings of fascination.




Reteach



  • Point out that students need to draw inferences when analyzing the differences between words with similar denotations. Review the definitions of enamored and enthralled, and work with students to draw inferences about the meanings.

GRADE 8: MODULE 5

GRADE 8: MODULE 5

 
“Combat and the Soldier’s Experience in World War One”

http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/combat-and-soldiers-experiences


L.8.4.B

Advance Preparation



Materials



  • Dictionaries (one per student or shared as available; alternatively use a digital dictionary such as www.wordsmyth.net)


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.

  2. Explain that good readers use Greek or Latin affixes (word beginnings and endings) or roots (main word part) to determine the meaning of words.

  3. Display and read aloud the first paragraph from “Combat and the Soldier’s Experience in World War One.” Use it to share and model the steps for using Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to a word’s meaning:

    • Identify unknown words. Say: As I read the text, I circle unknown words and phrases. Model circling endured in the first paragraph.

    • Use word parts (affixes and roots) to determine the meaning of unknown words. Ask: What word parts help me understand the word endured? Say: I examine familiar word parts in the unfamiliar words and phrases for clues to meaning. I know the word part en from the word encircle, which means “circle in,” and enclose, which means “close in.” I think en means “in or inside.” I know the word part dur from words like durable or duration. I think it means “long or hard.”

    • Combine the word parts to define the unknown words. Say: Based on the word parts, I think the word endure means “to go in or through something long or hard.”

    • Confirm your definition with a print or online dictionary. Model using a print or online dictionary to confirm the definition. Say: I can confirm my guess in a dictionary. According to this dictionary, endure means “survive under or function in spite of something difficult,” which is close to what I determined from the word parts.



  4. Have students write the definition of endure in their writing journals or another word list. 


Check Vocabulary Skills



  1. TURN AND TALK: Refer to the displayed word incessant. Ask students to use their knowledge of the word parts in, cess, and ant to define the word incessant (never ceasing; continual). If necessary, students can use online or print dictionaries to define the word parts.

  2. Have students write the definition of incessant in their writing journals or another word list. 


Reteach



  • If students cannot define incessant using word parts, prompt with questions:


    • What does the word part in mean in words like incredible, invisible, and independent? (not)

    • What does the word part cess mean in words like cease and cessation? (stop)

    • What part of speech does the word part ant signify in words like abundant, arrogant, and brilliant? (adjective)

    • Now, put all the word parts together: What does the word incessant mean? (not stopping) 


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Refer to the displayed word motivate. Have students write one to two sentences to explain the meaning of the word based on its Greek or Latin affixes and roots.

    Sample Student Response:


    The word motivate means “to give someone a reason for moving” because the word part motiv means “reason for moving” and the word part ate makes the word a verb.




Reteach



  • If students cannot define motivate using word parts, ask:


    • What does the word part motiv mean in words like motive and locomotive? (reason for moving; moving)

    • What part of speech does the word part ate signify in words like abbreviate, accelerate, and advocate? (verb)

    • Now, put all the word parts together: What does the word motivate mean? (to give someone a reason for moving)

All Quiet on the Western Front

L.8.4.D

Advance Preparation



  • Display and reference when directed:

    • the word quaking

    • All Quiet on the Western Front (pp. 180, 182)

    • the word writhe


Materials



  1. Dictionaries (one per student or shared as available; alternatively use a digital dictionary such as wordsmyth.net)

  2. All Quiet on the Western Front (p. 180, one per student) 


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word by checking the inferred meaning in a dictionary.

  2. Explain that good readers verify or check their preliminary determinations (or first guesses) of a word’s meaning by using a dictionary.

  3. Refer to the displayed word quaking and p. 180 of All Quiet on the Western Front. Use the displayed materials to share and model the steps for verifying the inferred meaning of an unfamiliar word in the dictionary.

    • Use word parts and background knowledge to infer the word’s meaning. Ask: What are word parts? (prefixes, suffixes, or roots—parts of the beginning, middle, and end of the word) Say: I can use the word part quake in the word earthquake to infer meaning for quake. I know that an earthquake is a shaking of the earth, so quaking probably means “shaking.”

    • Use context to infer a meaning for the unknown word. Say: What is context? (words around the unknown word that help us define it) We can also use context to infer or confirm the meaning of an unknown word. Refer to the fourth paragraph on p. 180, and say: I read the word quaking in the context of p. 180 and see that Mrs. Kemmerich is “quaking and sobbing,” so my inference of “shaking” seems right. She is crying so hard that the is shaking.

    • Use an online or print dictionary to confirm your definition. Say: Once you have a preliminary determination of the word meaning, look up the word in a dictionary to make sure your definition is correct and complete. In the dictionary, the word quaking means “shaking as from fear, coldness, or the like,” so I’m glad I used a dictionary, because now my preliminary inferred definition is complete.



  4. Have students write the definition of quaking in their writing journals or another word list.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  1. TURN AND TALK: Refer to the displayed word writhe and p. 182, para. 4.

  2. Ask students to infer the meaning of the word based on background knowledge of the expression writhing in pain (to twist) and the context of the word on p. 182. Then, have students use online or print dictionaries to verify or confirm their definition.

  3. Have students add the definition to their writing journal or another word list (to twist and turn the body as in pain, discomfort, struggle, or embarrassment; squirm).


Reteach



  • If students cannot infer the definition of writhe, help them unpack the expression “writhe in pain.” Then, ask: How do people move when they are in pain?


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Refer students to the word instantaneously in para. 5 on p. 180. Have students write one to two sentences to explain the inferred and dictionary meaning of the word instantaneously. Then, have them add the definition to their writing journals or another word list. (happening or done immediately or at the same instant).

    Sample Student Responses:


    I infer from word parts that the word instantaneously means “done in an instant.” The context also supports my inference since a person shot in the heart would die in an instant. I found the dictionary definition to confirm my inference.



Reteach


  • If students cannot infer the definition of instantaneously, ask them to recognize word parts: What word do you recognize in the word instantaneously? What does the suffix (ending) –ly tell you? Also point out that a person who is shot in the heart would logically die in an instant, or right away.
Harlem Hellfighters

L.8.5.A

Materials



  • Harlem Hellfighters (p. 1, displayed; pp. 1–3, 22, one per student)


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT interpret verbal irony in a text.

  2. Explain that good readers interpret or figure out the meaning and impact of verbal irony or sarcasm in a text.

  3. Refer to and read aloud the displayed page from The Harlem Hellfighters. Share and model the steps for interpreting verbal irony in a text:

    • Identify verbal irony. Say: Often you can identify verbal irony because a word is repeated several times with several different meanings or the dictionary meaning of the word doesn’t make sense in the context of the text. On p. 1, I see that the author uses great in two different ways.

    • Use context and/or a dictionary to identify multiple meanings of the word(s), including ironic or sarcastic meanings. Say: I know that great means “very good” and it also means “big.”

    • Use word meanings to unpack the ironic or sarcastic meaning of the word(s). Ask: Which meaning of great is used in the first and the second frames on the page? (“big” in the first frame; “very good” in the second frame). Say: The author uses the two different meanings of the word great to create verbal irony. The narrator knows that WWI is called the Great War because it was so big, but he is using the other meaning of great to sarcastically say that WWI wasn’t very good. 



Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Ask students to find the word evolved in two places on p. 22 and explain the verbal irony. (The author says that the story most white people and a few black people told themselves and others was that the Negro brain had not evolved, or progressed, enough to handle leadership roles. When the author goes on to say, “I guess maybe some of those Negro brains weren’t “evolved” enough to believe it, he is using evolved ironically. He means that that you would have to be stupid to believe that story, or lie.)


Reteach



  • Point out that in the second sentence, the author uses the word evolved sarcastically to mean the opposite. Also point out that evolved, unlike great, does not have two different meanings.


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Have students review pp. 1–3 of The Harlem Hellfighters, and then write two to three sentences to explain the phrase the war to end all wars (p. 1) as an instance of verbal irony in The Harlem Hellfighters.

    Sample Student Responses:



    • The narrator says that some people called the war “the war to end all wars” because it was so terrible that no one would ever want to fight a war again after it, which he calls a “nice story,” but he says that “the truth’s got an ugly way of killin’ nice stories.” The narrator is using the phrase the war to end all wars sarcastically because he doesn’t believe that the war will actually end all wars.



Reteach



  • If students cannot explain this instance of verbal irony, recall the examples already discussed: great on p. 1 or evolved on p. 22. Review that in both of these examples, the narrator uses sarcasm to say something he does not really mean. Ask them how the narrator might be using the phrase the war to end all wars sarcastically.

All Quiet on the Western Front

L.8.5.B

Advance Preparation



  • Display and reference when directed: All Quiet on the Western Front, p. 102, first complete paragraph.


Materials



  • All Quiet on the Western Front, pp. 109–110 (one per student)


Introduce the Vocabulary Learning Objective



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: SWBAT use the relationship between particular words to better understand the words in All Quiet on the Western Front.

  2. Explain that good readers use relationships between words, such as synonyms, antonyms, and analogies, to identify the meaning of unknown words. Ask: What is an analogy? (a comparison between two ideas) What are some kinds of analogies and examples of them?

    Sample Student Responses:



    • Category: Horse is to animal as green bean is to vegetable.; A horse is a kind of animal just as a green bean is a kind of vegetable.

    • Part / Whole: Finger is part of a hand as a wheel is part of a bicycle.

    • Synonym: Car is to automobile as two is to pair.

    • Antonym: Day is to night as forward is to backward.



  3. Reference and read aloud the displayed paragraph (All Quiet on the Western Front, p. 102). Use the paragraph to share and model the steps for using the relationship between words to better understand their meaning.

    • Identify an unknown word. Say: Circle words you don’t know. I’ll circle the word repulsive.

    • Identify related words. Say: To determine the meaning of an unknown word, you can identify related words, such as antonyms, synonyms, or the other words used in analogies. To identify related words, you reread to notice how the unknown word is used in the sentence and if any other words are similarly used.

    • Reread the text. Say: Let’s reread p. 102. The author uses the word repulsive to describe the rats, and then describes them with other words such as: corpse, shocking, evil, and nauseating. Because these words are all used to describe the rats, they are related. They may be similar in meaning.

    • Use related words to determine the meaning of the unknown word. Say: Once you have found related words, use them to help you determine the meaning of the unknown word.

    • Say: The other words used to describe the rats, such as corpse, evil, and nauseating all have negative connotations. They also have something to do with shocking or making someone sick. Therefore, I use these synonyms to define repulsive as “shocking and making one sick.”



  4. Direct students to write the definition in their writing journals or another word list.


Check Vocabulary Skills



  • Refer students to the last paragraph on p. 109 and the first paragraph on p. 110. Circulate to monitor their capacity to use relationships between words to define claustrophobia.


Reteach



  1. If students struggle to identify related words, read this line and identify claustrophobia: “It is a case of claustrophobia, he feels as though he is suffocating here and wants to get out at any price.”

  2. Then model analyzing each word to see if it is related. Say: I can eliminate all the little words as they are not directly related to claustrophobia, which leaves feels, suffocating, and get out at any price. Each of these words is related to claustrophobia as a synonym. So, I can use their meanings to define claustrophobia as “a feeling of suffocation and needing to get out of a space.”


Vocabulary Exit Ticket



  • Refer students to the first full paragraph on p. 110. Have them use relationships between words to define barrage.

    Sample Student Response:


    The word bombardment is related to the word barrage as a synonym, so I know that a barrage is a “bombardment or a bombing.”




Reteach



  • If students struggle to identify the relationship between an unknown and known word, guide them to replace the unknown word with the known word and then use context to determine the relationship between the words. Students may have to change the form of the related word to use it in place of the unknown word. Ask: Does the related word (or some form of it) make sense in the context? Or does the context show that the related word is the opposite of the unknown word?